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What is a Hot Tap & why it is made?

Hot Taps or Hot Tapping is the ability lớn safely tie inkhổng lồ a pressurized system, by drilling or cutting, while it is on stream & under pressure.

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Typical connections consist:

Tapping fittings like Weldolet®, Reinforced Branch or Split Tee. Split Tees often to lớn be used as branch and main pipe has the same diameters.Isolation valve like Gate or Ball valve.Hot tapping machine which includes the cutter, & housing.

Mechanical fittings may be used for making hot taps on pipelines and mains provided they are designed for the operating pressure of the pipeline or main, và are suitable for the purpose.

Design: ASME B31.1, B31.3, ASME B31.4 & B31.8, ASME Sec. VIII Div.1 và 2Fabrication: ASME Sec. VIII Div.1Welding: ASME Sec. IXNDT: ASME Sec. V

There are many reasons to made a Hot Tap. While is preferred khổng lồ install nozzles during a turnaround, installing a nozzle with equipment in operation is sometimes advantageous, especially if it averts a costly shut down.


Remarks before made a Hot Tap

A hot tap shall not be considered a routine procedure, but shall be used only when there is no practical alternative sầu.Hot Taps shall be installed by trained and experienced crews.It should be noted that hot tapping of sour gas lines presents special health và metallurgical concerns & shall be done only to written operating company approved plans.For each hottap shall be ensured that the pipe that is drilled or sawed has sufficient wall thickness, which can be measured with ultrasonic thickness gauges. The existing pipe wall thickness (actual) needs lớn be at least equal to lớn the required thickness for pressure plus a reasonable thickness allowance for welding. If the actual thickness is barely more than that required for pressure, then loss of containment at the weld pool is a risk.Welding on in-service pipelines requires weld procedure development & qualification, as well as a highly trained workforce to ensure integrity of welds when pipelines are operating at full pressure và under full flow conditions.

Hot Tap setup

For a hot tap, there are three key components necessary to safely drill into a pipe; the fitting, the valve, và the hot tap machine. The fitting is attached lớn the pipe, mostly by welding.In many cases, the fitting is a Weldolet® where a flange is welded, or a split tee with a flanged outlet (see image above).

Onto this fitting, a valve sầu is attached, và the hot tap machine is attached lớn the valve sầu. For hot taps, new bolts, gaskets & a new valve sầu should always be used when that components will become part of the permanent facilities & equipment.

The fitting/valve sầu combination, is attached khổng lồ the pipe, & is normally pressure tested. The pressure thử nghiệm is very important, so as khổng lồ make sure that there are no structural problems with the fitting, & so that there are no leaks in the welds.

The hot tap cutter, is a specialized type of hole saw, with a pilot bit in the middle, mounted inside of a hot tap adapter housing.

The hot tap cutter is attached to a cutter holder, with the pilot bit, và is attached to lớn the working end of the hot tap machine, so that it fits into lớn the inside of the tapping adapter.

The tapping adapter will contain the pressure of the pipe system, while the pipe is being cut, it houses the cutter, and cutter holder, and bolts to the valve.

Hot Tap operation

The Hot Tap is made in one continuous process, the machine is started, and the cut continues, until the cutter passes through the pipe wall, resulting in the removal of a section of pipe, known as the "coupon".

The coupon is normally retained on one or more u-wires, which are attached lớn the pilot bit. Once the cutter has cut through the pipe, the hot tap machine is stopped, the cutter is retracted inlớn the hot tap adapter, & the valve sầu is closed.

Pressure is bled off from the inside of the Tapping Adapter, so that the hot tap machine can be removed from the line. The machine is removed from the line, and the new service is established.

Split Tee (www.armorplateonline.com)

Hot Tap Coupon

The Coupon, is the section of pipe that is removed, lớn establish service. It is very highly desirable lớn "retain" the coupon, and remove it from the pipe, và in the vast majority of hot taps, this is the case.

Please note, short of not performing the hot tap, there is no way to lớn absolutely guarantee that the coupon will not be "dropped".

Coupon retention is mostly the "job" of the u-wires. These are wires which run through the pilot bit, and are cut and bent, so that they can fold baông xã against the bit, into lớn a relief area milled into lớn the bit, and then fold out, when the pilot bit has cut through the pipe.

In almost all cases, multiple u-wires are used, to lớn act as insurance against losing the coupon.

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Line Stopping

Line Stops, sometimes called Stopples (Stopple® is a trademark of TD Williamson Company) start with a hot tap, but are intended to lớn stop the flow in the pipe.

Line Stops are of necessity, somewhat more complicated than normal hot taps, but they start out in much the same way. A fitting is attached to the pipe, a hot tap is performed as previously detailed. Once the hot tap has been completed, the valve sầu is closed, then another machine, known as a line stop actuator is installed on the pipe.

The line stop actuator is used to insert a plugging head inkhổng lồ the pipe, the most comtháng type being a pivot head mechanism. Line stops are used lớn replace valves, fittings và other equipment. Once the job is done, pressure is equalized, và the line stop head is removed.

The Line Stop Fitting has a specially modified flange, which includes a special plug, that allows for removal of the valve. There are several different designs for these flanges, but they all work pretty much the same, the plug is inserted into lớn the flange through the valve, it is securely locked in place, with the result that the pressure can be bled off of the housing và valve, the valve can then be removed, and the flange blinded off.


Line Stop setup

The Line Stop Setup includes the hot tap machine, plus an additional piece of equipment, a line stop actuator. The Line Stop Actuator can be either mechanical (screw type), or hydraulic, it is used, lớn place the line stop head inkhổng lồ the line, therefore stopping the flow in the line.

The Line Stop Actuator is bolted to lớn a Line Stop Housing, which has khổng lồ be long enough lớn include the line stop head (pivot head, or folding head), so that the Line Stop Actuator, & Housing, can be bolted to lớn the line stop valve sầu.

Line stops often utilize special Valves, called Sandwich Valves.Line Stops are normally performed through rental Valves, owned by the service company who performs the work, once the work is completed, the fitting will remain on the pipe, but the valve sầu và all other equipment is removed.

Line Stop operation

A Line Stop starts out the same way as does a Hot Tap, but a larger cutter is used,.The larger hole in the pipe, allows the line stop head khổng lồ fit inkhổng lồ the pipe.

Once the cut is made, the valve is closed the hot tap machine is removed from the line, và a line stop actuator is bolted into lớn place.

New gaskets are always lớn be used for every thiết đặt, but "used" studs and nuts are often used, because this operation is a temporary operation, the valve sầu, machine, và actuator are removed at the kết thúc of the job.

New studs, nuts, and gaskets should be used on the final completion, when a blind flange is installed outside of the completion plug.

The line stop actuator is operated, to push the plugging head (line stop head), down, inlớn the pipe, the common pivot head, will pivot in the direction of the flow, and size a stop, thus stopping the flow in the pipe.

Completion Plug

In order to remove sầu the valve sầu used for line stop operations, a completion plug is mix into the line stop fitting flange (Completion Flange).

There are several different types of completion flange/plug sets, but they all operate in basically the same manner, the completion plug & flange are manufactured, so as khổng lồ allow the flange, lớn accept and loông xã into place, a completion plug.

This completion plug is set below the valve, once mix, pressure above the plug can be bled off, & the valve can then be removed.

Once the plug has been properly positioned, it is locked into place with the loông xã ring segments, this prevents plug movement, with the o-ring becoming the primary seal.

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Several different types of completion plugs have sầu been developed with metal khổng lồ metal seals, in addition khổng lồ the o-ring seal.